Vitamins facilitate the release of energy from the three energy yielding nutrients. In contrast, minerals and water are inorganic nutrients. Minerals yield no energy in human body, but like vitamins, they help to regulate the release of energy, among their many other roles. In some cases vitamins can help to reduce future diseases.

The metabolism is the set process by which nutrients are rearranged into the body structures or broken down to yield energy.
Vitamins are a powerful group of substances, as their absence attests. Vitamin A deficiency can cause blindness, a lack of niacin can cause dementia, and a lack of vitamin D can cause retard bone growth. The consequences of deficiencies are so dire and the effects of restoring the needed nutrients so dramatic that people spend much Money each year in vitamin supplements to cure many different ailments.
Vitamins certainly contribute to sound nutritional health.
Vitamins can help to combat disease caused by deficiency of that vitamin.

The vitamins roles in supporting optimal health extend far beyond preventing deficiency diseases. Emerging evidence points to relationships between low intakes of vitamins and chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease.
Two characteristics distinguish vitamins from energy nutrients; vitamins do not yield energy when broken down, but assist enzymes that release energy from carbohydrate, fat and protein.
Vitamins are needed in much smaller amounts that energy nutrients.
Determining the bioavailability of a vitamin depends on many factors, including, the deficiency of digestion, other foods eaten at the same time, the method of food preparation, the source of the nutrient, a person´s previous intake and nutrition status.

Vitamin A has a distinction of being the first fat soluble vitamin to be recognized.
Vitamin A is a versatile vitamin, with roles in gene expression, vision, cell differentiation, immunity and reprodution and growth.
Three different forms of vitamin A performs specific tasks. Retinol supports reproduction and is the major transport and storage form of vitamin; the cells convert retinol to retinal acid as needed. Retina lis active in vision, and retinoic acid act as a hormone, regulating cell differentiation, growth, and embryonic development.
Vitamin A´s role in vision – Vitamin A have two indispensable roles in the eye. It helps maintaining a healthy, crystal clear outer detection at the retina.
Vitamin A is crucial to normal reproduction and growth. In men, this vitamin participates in sperm development and in women promotes fetal growth and development. During pregnancy, vitamin A is transferred to the fetus and is essential to the development of the nervous system, lungs, hearth, eyes, ears, skeleton and kidneys.
Vitamin D is different from all the other nutrients in that the body can synthesize it in significant quantities with the help of sunlight. The biological activity of the active vitamin is 500 to 1000 fold. Diseases that affect either the liver or the kidneys may impair the transformations of percursor vitamin D to active vitamin D and therefore produce symptoms of vitamin D deficiency.
The best known action of vitamin D target organs are the small intestine, the kidneys, and the bones, but scientists have discovered many other vitamin D target issues, including the brain, the pâncreas, the skin, and the reproductive organs.

These discoveries suggest that numerous additional functions for vitamin D may surface, including regulation of the immune system.
Research is hinting that to incur a deficit of vitamin D is to invite problems of many kinds, including high blood pressure, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and even multiple sclerosis.
Vitamin D is a member of a large, cooperative bonemaking and maintenance team composed of nutrients and other large compounds. Vitamin D´s special role in bone growth is to make calcium and phosphorus available in the blood that bathes the bones.The bones grow denser and stronger as the minerals are deposited from the blood.

Vitamin E is a fat solutable antioxidant, in other words it protects other substances from oxidation by being oxidized itself. Vitamin E exerts an especially important antioxidant effect in the lungs, where the cells are exposed to high concentrations of oxygen.
Vitamin E also protects the lungs from air pollutants that are strong oxidants.
The few symptoms of vitamin E deficiency that have been observed in adults include loss of muscle coordination and reflexes with impaired movement, vision and speech.
Energy needs decline with advancing age. As a general rule, adult energy needs decline na estimated 5 percent per decade.
A research reveals more about how specific vitamins and minerals influence disease prevention, and how age relationed physiological changes affect nutrient metabolism, optimal intakes of vitamins and minerals for different groups of older adults are being defined.
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Vitamin K has long been known for its role in blood clotting, where its presence can make the difference between life and dealth. This vitamin also participates in the synthesis of several bone proteins. Without vitamin K, the bones produce an abnormal protein that cannot bind to the minerals that form bones, so bone density is low.
The B vitamins and vitamin C are the water solutable vitamins. They are easily absorbed into the bloodstream and are just as easily excreted if their blood concentrations rise too high.
All cells use thiamin, which plays a critical role in their energy metabolism. Thiamin also occupies a special site on nerve cell membranes. Consequently, as mentioned earlier, thiamin is critical to the normal functioning of the nerves and muscles.
Riboflavin facilitates energy production in the body. The needs of infants, children, and pregnant women rise rapidly during periods of active growth.

Niacin participates in the energy metabolism of every body cell. Niacin is unique among the B vitamins in that the body can make it from protein. Pantothenic acid and biotin are also important in energy metabolism.
Pantothenic acid was first recognized as a substance that stimulates growth. It is component of a key enzyme that makes possible the release of energy from the energy nutrients.

Biotin plays na important role in metabolism as a coenzyme that carries carbon dioxide. Emerging evidence indicates that biotin participates in other processes such as gene expression and cell signaling and in the structure of DNA binding proteins in the cell nucleus.
In the cells, vitamin B6 helps to convert one kind of amino acid, which the cells have in abundance, to another, which they need in larger amounts. It also aids in the conversion of the amino acid tryptophan to niacin and plays important roles in the synthesis of hemoglobin and neurotransmitters. Vitamin B6 also assits in releasing stored glucose from glycogen and thus contributes to the regulation of blood glucose. Research suggest roles for vitamin B6 in immune function, cognitive performance, and hormone response. Vitamin B6 deficiency can significantly impair the immune system response, perhaps by way of impaired antibody production.
 
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