B12 Folate, and cell division, vitamin B12 (in coenzyme form) stands by to
accept carbon groups from folate as folate removes them from other pounds.
The passing of these carbon groups from folate to vitamin B12 regenerates
the active form of folate so that it can continue its dismantling tasks.
In the absence of vitamin B12, folate is trapped in its inactive,
metabolically useless form, unable to do its Job.
When folate is either trapped due to a vitamin B12 deficiency or
unavailable due to a deficiency of folate itself, cells that are growing
most rapidly, notably, the blood cells, are the first to be affected.
Thus a deficiency of either nutrient vitamin B12 or folate impairs
maturation of the blood cells and produces anemia.
The anemia is identifiable by microscopic examination of the blood, which
reveals many large, immature red blood cells. Either vitamin B12 or folate
will clear up the anemia.
Vitamin B12 and the nervous system, although either vitamin will clear up
the anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency, if folate is given when
vitamin B12 is needed, the result is disastrous, not to the blood but to
the nervous system. The reason, vitamin B12 also helps maintain nerve
filters. A vitamin B12 deficiency can ultimately result in devastating
neurological symptoms, undetectable by blood test.
A deceptive folate cure of anemia in vitamin B12 deficiency allows the
Vitamin B12 absorption, vitamin B12 requires na intrinsic factor, a
compound made inside the body for absorption from the intestinal tract
into the blood stream. This intrinsic factor is made in the stomach, where
it attaches to the vitamin; the complex then passes to the small intestine
and gradually absorbed.
Inositol, Choline and Carnitine, among the non B vitamins are a trio of
substances known as inositol, choline, and carnitine. Researchers are
exploring the possibility that these substances may be essential.
Vitamin C, metabolic roles of vitamin C.
The best understood action of vitamin C is its role in helping to form
collagen, the single most important protein of connective. Collagen serves
as the matrix on which bones is formed, the material of scars, and na
important parto of the glue that attaches one cell to another This latter
function is especially important in the artery walls, which must expand
and contract with each beat of the hearth, and in the walls of the
capillaries, which are thin and fragile. Vitamin C also plays a role in
the production of carnitine, important for transporting fatty acids within
Potassium is the principal positively charged ion inside the body cells.
It plays a major role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance and
cell integraty. The sudden deaths that occur in severe diarrhea and in
children with kwashiorkor or people with eating disorders are likely due
to heart failure caused by potassium loss.
Calcium owns the distintion of being the most abundant mineral in the
body. Ninety nine percent of the body´s calcium is stored in the bones,
where it plays two important roles.
First, its an integral part of boné structure. Second, it serves as a
calcium bank available to the body fluids should a drop calcium accur.
Calcium balance, blood calcium concentration is tightly controlled.
Whenever blood calcium rises too high, a system of hormones and vitamin D
promotes its deposit into bone.
Whenever blood calcium falls too low, the regulatory system acts in three
locations to raise it, the small intestine absorbs more calcium, the bones
release more calcium, the kidneys excrete less calcium.
Calcium and Osteoporosis, bone mass peaks at the time of skeletal maturity
(about age 30), and a high peak bone mass is the best protection against
later age related bone loss and fracture. Adequate calcium nutrition
during the growing years is essential to achieving optimal peak bone mass.
Following menopause, women lose about 15 percent of their bone mass, as a
middle aged and older men.
When bone loss has reached such na extreme that bones fracture under even
common, everyday stresses, the condition is known as osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis afflicts more than 80 million people in the world, mostly
women with 50 years of age. Men, however, are not immune to osteoporosis.
Each year, a million and a half people, 30 percent of them men suffer
broken hips, pelvises, legs, arms, hands, and ankles to osteoporosis.
But both genetic and environmental factors can contribute to osteoporosis.
Calcium and hypertension, some evidence suggests that may protect against
For this reason, restricting salt intake to treat hypertension is narrow
Phosphorus is the second most abundant mineral in the body. About 85
percent of this is found combined with calcium in the crystals of the
bones and teeth.
As part of one of the body´s buffer systems, phosphorus is also found in
all body tissues.
Phosphorus is necessary for all growth.
Magnesium barely qualifies as major mineral. Only about 1 ounce of
magnesium is present in the body of a 130 pound person, over half of it in
Most of the rest is in the muscles, hearth, liver, and other soft tissues,
with only 1 percent in the body fluids. Bone magnesium seems to be
reservoir to ensure that some will be on hand for vital reactions
regardless of recent dietary intake.
Magnesium is critical to the operation of hundreds of enzymes. It acts in
all the cells of the soft tissues, where it forms part of the protein
making machinery and is necessary for the release of energy.
Mangnesium also helps muscles to relax after contaction.
Magnesium deficiency, magnesium deficiency can result from vomiting,
diarrhea, protein malnutrition; in people who have been fed incomplete
fluids intravenously for too long after surgery; or in people using
diuretics. Magnesium deficiency may also be relationed to cardiovascular
disease and hypertension.
Iron, most of the iron in the body is a component of the proteins
hemoglobin in red blood cells and myoglobin in muscle cells. The iron in
both hemoglobin and myoglobin helps them carry and old oxygen and then
Myoglobin holds oxygen for the muscles to use when they contract. As part
of many enzymes, iron is vital to the processes by which cells generate
Iron is also needed to make new cells, amino acids, hormones, and
Iron is needed to support the added blood volume, the growth of the fetus,
and the blood loss during the childbirth.
The rapid growth of adolescence, especially for males, and the blood
losses of menstruation for females also demand extra iron thata typical
teen diet may not provide.
Causes of iron deficiency, the big cause of iron deficiency is usually
inadequate intake from ignorance of which foods to choose, from sheer lack
of food altogether, or from high consumption of iron poor foods. Blood
loss is the primary nonnutritional cause, especially in poor regions of
the world where parasitic infections of the GI tract may lead to blood
Zinc, is a versatile trace mineral required as a cofactor bymore than 200
These zinc requiring enzymes perform tasks in the eyes, liver, kidneys,
muscles, skin, bones, and male reproductive organs. Zinc Works with the
enzymes that make genetic material; manufacture heme; digest food;
metabolize carbohidrate, protein, and fat; liberate vitamin A from storage
in the liver; and dispose of damaging free radicals.
Zinc also interacts with platelets in blood clothing, affects tyroid
hormone function, assists in immune function, and also affects behaviour
and learning performance.
Zinc is needed to produce the active form of vitamin A in visual pigments
and essential to wound healing, taste perception, the making of sperm and
fetal development. When zinc deficiency occurs, it impairs all these and
The body´s handling of zinc differs from that of iron, but with some
interesting simillarities. For example, like iron, extra zinc that enters
the body is held within the intestinal cells, and only the amount needed
is released into the bloodstream. As with iron, zinc status influences the
percentage of zinc absorbed from the diet; if more is needed more is
Zinc´s main transport vehicle in the blood is the protein albumin.
Selenium is an essential trace mineral that functions as part of a group
of antioxidant enzymes called glutathione peroxidases. These type of
enzymes prevent free radical formulation, thus blocking the damaging chain
reaction before it begins.
Glutathione peroxidases and vitamin E work in concert. If free radicals do
form, and chain reaction starts, vitamin E halts it. Selenium also plays
roles in converting thyroid hormone to its active form.
Iodine occurs in the body in minuscule amounts, but the principal role in
human nutrition is well known, and the amount needed is well established.
Iodine is an integral part of the tyroid hormones, which regulate body
temperature, metabolic rate, reproduction, growth, the making of blood
cells, nerve and muscle function, and more.
Iodine deficiency, when the iodine concentration in the blood is low, the
cells of the tyroid gland enlarge in na attempt to trap as many
particicles of iodine as possible.
If the gland enlarges until is visible, the swelling is called a simple
Copper, the body contains about 100 miligrams of copper. About one fourth
is in the muscles; one fourth is in the liver, brain, and blood; and the
rest in in the bones, kidneys, and other tissues. The primary function of
copper in the body is to serve metabolic roles, they catalyze the
formation of hemoglobin, help manufacture the protein collagen, assist in
the healing of wounds, and help maintain the sheaths around nerve fibers.
One of the copper´s most vital roles is to help cells use iron. Like iron,
copper is needed is many reactions related to respiration and energy
Manganese, the human body contains a tiny 20 miligrams of manganese,
mostly in the bones and glands. Manganese is a cofactor for many enzymes,
helping to facilitate dozens of different metabolic processes.